The term syndrome derives from a Greek roots and means “run together”.
It is most often used to refer to the set of detectable characteristics when the reason that they occur together has not yet been discovered.
A syndrome is the association of several clinically recognizable features, signs (observed by a physician), symptoms (reported by the patient), phenomena or characteristics that often occur together so that the presence of one feature alerts the physician to the presence of the others.
Genetic disorders place considerable health and economic burdens not only on affected people and their family but also on the community. As more environmental diseases are successfully controlled those that are genetically determined are becoming more important. Between 2-5% of all live born infants have genetic disorders or congenital malformation. Though diseases of wholly genetic origin are often rare, they are numerous and therefore important. Genetic disorders are incurable and severe. Only a few are amenable to treatment but most are not, so emphasis is often placed on prevention of recurrence within an affected family or complications in a person who is already affected.
Increasing awareness both within the medical profession and the general population of the genetic contribution to disease has led to an increasing demand for clinical genetic services. Some aspects of the genetics are well established and do not require referral to a specialized genetics clinic for Eg. the provision of amniocentesis to exclude Down syndrome in pregnancies at risk because of advanced maternal age. Other aspects are less well understood by non geneticists for Eg. the role of the molecular biology in clinical practice. This is an area of rapidly advancing technology requiring the specialized facilities of a genetic center. Genetic counseling covers more than estimating risks and extends beyond the person who presents to the whole family in changing situation over many years. The role of clinical geneticists is to establish an accurate diagnosis on which to base counseling and then to provide information about prognosis and follow up, the risk of developing or transmitting the disorder and the way in which this may be prevented or ameliorated. This book provide detail knowledge of syndrome of head and neck and also provide the oral manifestations of these syndromes.